此篇文章為針對 TPO28 TOEFL聽力解析 ～
TPO是托福線上全真模擬測驗(TOEFL Practice Online)的縮寫，是ETS官方的模擬測驗，對於想提升英文能力的學員和要參加TOEFL iBT托福考試的學員複習及考前模擬都有很大的幫助！
Conversation 1 TPO28 TOEFL聽力解析
1、(0.26 – 0.48) Professor:So let’s get started. Your paper on John Dewey’s political philosophy has a few issues I like to cover. You get great biographical sketches in the beginning. OK, but then you get to his political philosophy. I don’t think you have done enough to situate his philosophy within the time period. In other words, you haven’t connected his philosophy to the thinking of other intellectuals of the time.
2、(0.12 – 0.22) Student: I’m so sorry I’m late Professor Mills. I have just been to students’ medical center. I pushed my ankle playing soccer this morning. It takes longer than I expected to see the doctor.
3、(0.48 – 0.56) Student: So I haven’t catch the most critical influences, the influences that were most significant to his political thinking?
(1.30 – 1.50) Professor: Yes, revised.Let me ask, when you finished writing, did you go back and ask yourself if all the material was relevant?
Student: Well. no.
Professor: I do think there are areas that can be cut. I guess what I am saying is your paragraphs are really presenting in logical order. The direction of your argument is not crystal-clear, and there is some unnecessary material getting in the way.
(2.13 – 2.30) Professor: It looks like you get have mixed up with another reference system.
Student: Oh, yeah. I used something different in high school. It’s so confusing when switching to a new system.
I know. But remember, everything needs to be consistent when comes to referencing. It’s a very important academic convention.
4、(2.32 – 2.47) Professor: Oh, also, I want to ask you, will you be in the political science club meeting Saturday?
Student: Definitely, the topic is John Dewey.
Professor: Yes. Are you interested in meeting part of the discussion? Tom is looking someone to help out. I think you have a lot to contribute.
Student: That will be fun. I’ ll give them a call.
5、重聽部分：Let me ask, when you finished writing, did you go back and ask yourself if all the material was relevant?
教授問學生在完成寫作後有沒有回去重新看看材料是否都有關聯，即review his own work。
Lecture-1 TPO28 TOEFL聽力解析
1、lecture一直在講foundationalism，Locke和Descartes，對應的也就是two philosophers和foundation knowledge claims
2、(0.44 – 1.08) Take knowledge as a house, you need a solid foundation on which you build your house. And if you have a strong foundation, your house is more likely to be solid. Well, foundationalists think the same thing is true of knowledge. If you have a solid base for your knowledge claims, then your knowledge structure is more likely to be strong. Well, true.
professor說foundationalists認為如果有solid base for knowledge，那麼structure（對應選項中的organization of human knowledge）也會更堅固穩固，與修建房子同理，對應A選項。
3、(1.34 – 2.01) Professor: Locke’ viewpoint essentially is when humans were born, their minds were like blank slakes. That is, we don’t have any kind of knowledge when we were born. We get our knowledge from our senses, you know, taste, touch, smile, sight hearing. So when we look at the world, first is the baby’s, then as we grow, that’s where our knowledge comes from. Our senses, our experiences serve as the foundation for our knowledge.
foundation對應題幹中的basic type of knowledge，Locke認為這些基礎知識來自於人對外界的感知，也就是senses。
4、(2.14 – 2.28) Professor: Descartes thought you must go to much deeper to find foundations. He believed our senses are not to be trusted. So he wanted to find a more solid foundation for knowledge. He began with what comes to be called methodological doubt.
Descartes認為需要go much deeper（對應discover） to find foundations （對應foundational knowledge claims），對應了選項A。
5、 (3.02 – 3.11) Professor: So unlike John Locke, Descartes doubt that knowledge comes from senses. He points out that at some time or another everyone is deceived by its senses.
(4.25 – 4.44) We could be dreaming. And there’s really no good way to prove we are not. So the common sense picture of reality that the world really is what it looks to us. Descartes shows it cannot just be as assumed as to be true beyond all doubt. He does it by talking about illusions. And also, by arguing that we could be dreaming.
lecture中教授提高笛卡爾認為人可能被experience經驗或者sense deceived..也就是experience cannot be trusted，笛卡爾認為我們所感受到的reality現實也可能是我們在dreaming，不一定是真正的reality。
6、(4.54 – 5.12) Professor: To even think I doubt that I exist, you have to exist. And so what Descartes has done is to find at least one thing that he can be certain of he says I exist. And that’s the start. And other knowledge, he tells us, can be based on that foundation.
笛卡爾認為作為知識基礎的一定是他可以確信存在的，也就是a belief that cannot be false。
Lecture-2 TPO28 TOEFL聽力解析
1、 (0.17 – 0.22) Professor:Today we’re going to talk about particular cognitive ability some animal seem to have.
(1.50) Now it has been assumed that primates and some other mammals stood alone at the top of higher cognitive evolution. But recently, birds, have been found possess some of the same cognitive abilities.
2、(2.55) Professor: As I said, ,magpies are corvids, and because corvids have these other cognitive skills, researchers want to see if they were also capable of mirror-self recognition, so they give them a mirror mark test, placing a yellow sticker on the bird’s black throats. At first, the magpies only engage in the same social behaviors that other animals do, looking behind the mirror, but eventually some of the birds, while looking in the mirror, catch
3、(2.24 – 2.44) Professor: Well, corvids and some mammals have the ability to plan for the future, to store food, for instance, in places where they can find later. It’s been suggested that in fact the Jazz, corvids known for stealing each other’s food, may hide their food precisely because they are projecting their own tendencies to steal onto other jazz.
corvids藏東西主要由兩個原因，一是為未來作打算，藏在將來能發現的地方，二是project tendencies onto other corvids。
4、(4.00 – 4.15) Professor：But two things are noteworthy here. One, no one has replicated this study. But more importantly, it misses the point, the issue is not whether some abilities can be learned, it’s whether a species can develop this ability spontaneously
5、(4.27 – 4.42) Professor：But more importantly, many researchers believe that MSR is indicative of other advanced cognitive abilities. Self-awareness, even in its earlier stages, might entail an awareness of others, the ability to see their perspective, to look the world from another point of view.
MSR展現了其他的能力，比如self-awareness，也就是look the world from others’ perspective。
6、(5.09 – 5.20) Professor：But there is an area in birds’ brains that researchers believe govern similar cognitive functions. So primates and birds’ brains have evolved along different tracks, but ended up with similar abilities.
Conversation 1 TPO28 TOEFL聽力解析
1、(0.18 – 0.45) Student: So the first thing is you normally write during the first half of the academic year, right? In your final year study?
Student: But I have my students teaching schedule for that time. I want to teach high school English after graduation. So I really need to give that my full attention and I just worry that I won’t be able to finish my senior thesis at the same time. I mean it’s supposed to be 35 to 50 pages. That’s a serious commitment.
學生說自己在最後一年的first half裡有teaching schedule，所以不能完成senior thesis，於此便是與professor討論何時完成最佳。
2、(1.20 – 1.42) Student: So I was hoping to do my senior thesis on Chaucer on the Canterbury Tales. Because that will be obviously useful if I do gone. But..
Professor: But Professor. Johnson…
Student: Exactly. Professor Johnson is going to be taking a bedical to do research in France during the second half of the year. So without him around, I’m not sure how I can do my senior thesis on Canterbury Tales.
Prof. Johnson下半年要去法國做研究，也就無法指導學生的senior thesis了
3、同上文，Prof.Johnson 是學生關於Chaucer論文的導師，自然也是specialist on Chaucer。
4、(1.20 – 1.27) Student: So I was hoping to do my senior thesis on Chaucer on the Canterbury Tales. Because that will be obviously useful if I do gone.
(1.27 – 2.00) Student: Well, you can try. Chaucer is the sort of my hero.
學生認為Chaucer方面的研究以後會非常有作用，而且Chaucer是他的hero，也就是he admires Chaucer。
5、Professor: Well, if you do decide to build this route, I will make that decision soon. And I will use this summer productively.
Lecture-1 TPO28 TOEFL聽力解析
1、(0.19 – 0.41) Professor: Today I want to talk about another way light affects plants. I’m sure you all know in physics class how light moves in microscopic ways, and we can only see light when the wavelength of that light is in specific range. Plus, depending on the wavelength, we can see different colors. Well, plants are also capable of distinguishing between different wavelengths of light.
2、(1.22 – 1.40) Professor: Many plants are seasonal. And one way they know when winter is ending and spring is beginning is by sensing the change of light. The time when we don’t plant flower is based on the amount of light the plant senses. Certain plant species don’t flower if they sense too much light and some plants only flower when they senses specific amount of light.
3、(1.45 – 2.10) Professor: Plants are also able to distinguish between specific wavelengths of light that human eye cannot even see. Specifically, there’s wavelength called far-red. Although why they called far-red? I mean it’s not really red at all, it lies in the in inner red range of the spectrum. We can’t see it, but plants can sense it as a different wavelength.
4、(2.28 – 2.36) Professor: Plants absorb most of the red light that hits them, but plants only absorb some of the far-red light that hits them, they reflect the rest.
5、(3.50 – 3.58) Professor: A ratio of less red light to more far-red light, would cause a reaction from the plant. It would stop growing taller.
6、(4.05 – 4.24) To testify this hypothesis, researchers took some electrical lights, actually, they would light emitting diodes, or LEDs. These light emitting diodes could stimulate red light.
Lecture-2 TPO28 TOEFL聽力解析
1、教授一上來說，考古學家dream 找到 ancient civilization，很多人覺得這是不可能發生的事情，但是確實發現了，接下來就說發現的這個古文明並且證據如何證明他是古文明的。
2、A easier一般看見就排除了，C trade的定位點在後面，與site無關，明確排除， D desert是一開始的開頭introduction部分說到的，不在教授講解的這個例子裡邊，選擇B。
於是跑回去重聽，聽了半天說的是這個地方曾經有house temple但是後來都沒有了，之後人們又新建了很多東西，所以只能有 layers 和 size of the city 是關於當時的資訊。
3、教授說道GD的時候說了一句amazing，說明教授此文化為非常正面的態度。後邊說道找到了珠寶啊等痕跡，說明教授從一開始就要驗證的事情就是GD是civilization的證據。 A GD有埃及和China的東西肯定是later不是earlier了 C little in common 就不對，是negative的感覺 D more research沒有提到，並且本文強調的是證據。